By Agamemnon Despopoulos
This fifth variation has been completely revised by way of content material and association of the didactic fabric; just about all of the color illustrations were drawn anew for enhanced readability. The broad introductory bankruptcy makes a speciality of facets of cytophysiology. as a result significantly elevated textual content and superior illustrative fabric, sensible connections are simply famous; new recommendations and present advances in study are taken absolutely under consideration.
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Additional info for A. Color Atlas of Physiology
K · α · D is then summarized as diffusion conductance, or Krogh’s diffusion coefficient K [m2 ⋅ s–1 ⋅ Pa–1]. Substitution into Fick’s first diffusion equation yields . Vdiff ∆P ϭK⋅ [m ⋅ s–1]. 7] Since A and ∆x of alveolar gas exchange (Ǟ p. 120) cannot be determined in living organisms, K · F/∆x for O2 is often expressed as the O2 diffusion capacity of the lung, DL: . VO2 diff ϭ DL ⋅ ∆PO2 [m3 ⋅ s–1]. , formic acid, HCOOH) passes through a membrane more readily than the charged form (Ǟ F). In this case, the membrane would be more permeable to NH3 than to NH4+ (Ǟ p.
In parathyroid cells, on the other hand, a high [Ca2+]o reduces the secretion of PTH, a hormone that increases the [Ca2+]o. This activity is mediated by DAG and PKC (protein kinase C) and, perhaps, by a (Gi protein-mediated; Ǟ p. 276) reduction in the cAMP concentration (Ǟ C3). Ca2+ sensors are also located on osteoclasts as well as on renal and intestinal epithelial cells. Hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia, cramp, malignant hyperthermia, alkalosis A. 3 mmol/L Depolarization, external ligands, IP3, cAMP, etc.
The chemical Na+ gradient provides the sole ̈ Neural and muscular excitability disorders, anoxia and consequences, cardiac glycosides A. 13 Active Transport I 2 K+ a 2 b P Na+ binding, K+ discharge ATP Phosphorylation Conformational High affinity change for K+ c f Conformation E1 Na+ K+ High affinity for Na+ Conformational change P Conformation E 2 d e P Pi Dephosphorylation Na+ discharge, K+ binding (Partly after P. , Na+/H+ antiport), whereas the negative membrane potential (Ǟ p. ) provides an additional driving force for rheogenic cotransport into the cell.
A. Color Atlas of Physiology by Agamemnon Despopoulos